The National Park of Venezuela Guácharo is located in the Eastern Interior Highlands, between Sucre and Monagas state. It occupies part of Caripe, Acosta, Piar and Bolivar (Monagas) and Ribero (Sucre) municipalities. It houses the famous cave of the same name.
Guácharo Caves, also known as Alejandro de Humboldt National Monument is located in the northeastern region of Venezuela,north of Monagas state in Caripe massif.
It was declared a National Park on July 15, 1949.
Before colonization, the Indians made use of the cave. Beginning in 1657, the Capuchin Franciscan missionaries discovered in the times in which they evangelized the province of Cumana. At the time,founded the Mission of Santa Maria de Los Angeles Guácharo. It was in the same cave in which these missionaries hid to escape persecution of Tuapocas Cacique Indians.
The first person that was explored Ybarra and Don Francisco De Herrera, Bishop of the Diocese of Saint Thomas of Guiana.
Alejandro Humboldt,visited these caves in one of his expeditions in the country during the month of September 1799 and unveiled in his "Trek Equinoccionales Regions of the New Continent." In their narratives, indicates that came to walk around 472 meters and reached a giant stalagmite is now called El Castillo.
In his writings, Humboldt Guácharos describes as typical of these underground places that are noisy nocturnal birds. He also comments,"I have not seen any cave on both continents have as uniform and regular structure."
In 1835, Agustín Codazzi did all the route that Humboldt came forward in 1799 and beyond the Paso del Silencio and the Hall of Boobs. Codazzi also wrote about this experience which he described as a great spectacle of nature. "The dome seemed crital and it hung so rare stalactites in its structure, as brilliant in his compositions"narrated the Lounge called Beautiful.
After the expeditions of Humboldt and Codazzi, European scientists were interested to know this natural beauty. Between 1843 and 1892 it was visited by Karl Moritz, Bellerman Ferdinand, Herman Karsten, Anton Goering and Wilhelm Sievers.
In 1946 a group of caripeños through the Windward Passage. In 1957, members of the Speleological Society and the Venezuelan Society of Natural Sciences, reach the bottom of the cave. And in 1962,discover the Codazzi Lounge.
Features of the Cave
The origin of the caves of Guácharo found in limestone rocks. Today, it consists of various kinds, among which are limestone, shale or clay shale and sandstone.
Due to the volume of water entering the cave because of the rains, the limestone rocks have been dissolving and forming the underground system that exists there.
Besides Guácharosgiven the climatic conditions of the Caves, manage to live there other animal species, among which are: the backpacker mouse, curareque, brown crab and several species of bats.
It is the quintessential inhabitant of the Cave. Besides living in Venezuela is in other countries such as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.
Son trogófilos beings, ie, that live and breed in caves,but can also live abroad as long as the environment is dark, moist and protected.
In the case of Cuevas de Venezuela, these birds are found in the Humboldt Room. During the day,digest food gathering in the evenings. Oilbirds are the only nocturnal birds that feed on fruit.
They build their nests on the protrusions of the walls of the caves. The Guácharos may have a length of 55 inches. Their feathers are usually brown with white spots. His eyes are very sensitive to light. When fly emits high-pitched sounds that allow you to be guided in the dark.
Caves are formed by Guácharo environments: twilight zone,is located from the entrance to the penetration of natural light, intermediate zone, an area of total darkness in which the temperature and humidity vary with the external environment; deep zone with constant temperature and humidity.
The temperature is constant and is usually located at 19 degrees Celsius in the twilight zone and in the middle. Relative humidity shows little variation and the average is 100%. The wind speed at the entrance of the cave,Step of Silence and the Wind is between 1 and 6 miles per hour.
Guácharo Cave has a thousand tourists Roads 500 meters long. The tour begins in a mouth 23 meters high by 28 meters wide that is located on the south wall of the same hill.